By James C. Roberts MD FACC FAARFM, 2014
Metals. Lipids, Renal Function, Hypertension, and Outcome
1. A practical method for the reduction of plasma cholesterol in man. Schroeder, H. J. Chron. Dis. Nov, 1956. pp. 461-468.
2. Depression of cholesterol levels in human plasma following ethylenediamine tetracetate and hydralazine. Perry, H, et al. J. Chron. Dis. Nov, 1955pp. 520-533.
3. The Mechanism of the Plasma Cholesterol Esterification Reaction: Plasma Fatty Acid Transferase. Glomset, J. Biochemica Et Biophysica ACTA. 65 (1962) 128-13
4. Blood Lead Below 0.48 umol/L (10 ug/dl) and Mortality Among US Adults. Menke, A, et al. Circulation 2006;114:1388-1394.
5. Nickel Concentrations in Serum of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction or Unstable Angina Pectoris. Leach, C, et al., Clinical Chemistry Vol. 31, No. 4, 1985 pp. 556-560.
6. Cardiovascular Effects of Nickel in Ambient Air. Lippman, M, et al. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 114 no. 11, Nov. 2006 pp. 1662-1669.
7. Increased Body Cadmium Burden in Chinese Women Without Smoking and Occupational Exposure. Lin, J, et al. Clinical Toxicology 33(6), 639-644 (1995).
8. Environmental Lead Exposure and Progression of Chronic Renal Diseases in Patients without Diabetes. Lin, J, et al. NEJM 1/23/03 Vol. 348 No. 4 pp. 277-286.
9. Environmental Exposure to Lead and Progression of Chronic Renal Diseases: A Four-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study. Yu, C, et al. J Am Soc Nephrol 15: 1016-1022.
10. Chelation Therapy for Patients with Elevated Body Lead Burden and Progressive Renal Insufficiency. Lin, J, et al. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130:7-13.
11. The Relationship of Bone and Blood Lead to Hypertension. Hu, H, et la. JAMA 1996;275:1171-1176.
12. A Longitudinal Study of Low-Level Exposure and Impairment of Renal Function. Kim, R, et la. JAMA 1996;275:1177-1181.
13. Blood Lead, Blood Pressure, and Hypertension in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women. Nash, D, et la. JAMA 2003;289:1523-1532.
14. The Vascular System as a Target of Metal Toxicity. Prozialeck, W, et al. Toxicol Sci. 2008 April; 102(2):207-218.
15. Lead Exposure and Change in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System in Man. Campbell, B, et al,. Toxicology Letters, 25 (1985) 25-32.
16. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and exposure to inorganic mercury. Boffetta, P, et al. Occup Environ Med 2001; 58:461-466 (July).
17. Mercury intoxication presenting with hypertension and tachycardia. Womann, W, et al. Arch Dis Child 1999;80:556-557 (June).
18. Electrocardiographic Changes in Mercury Poisoning. Dahhan, S, and Orfalty, H. The American Journal of Cardiology. Vol. 14, Aug. 1964 pp. 178-183.
19. Mercury, Fish Oils, and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction. Guallar, E, et al. NEJM Vol. 347, No. 22, Nov. 28, 2002 pp. 1747-1754.
20. Intake of Mercury From Fish, Lipid Peroxidation, and the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary, Cardiovascular, and Any Death in Eastern Finnish Men. Salonen, J, et al. Circulation 1995;91:645-655.
21. Mercury, Fish Oils, and Risk of Acute Coronary Events and Cardiovascular Disease, Coronary Heart Disease, and All-Cause Mortality in Men in Eastern Finland. Virtanen, J, et la. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc. Biol. 2005;25:228-233.
22. The effects of calcium, magnesium, lead, or cadmium on lipoprotein metabo9lism and atherosclerosis in the pigeon. Revis, N, et alk. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology 4-2,3:293-304.
23. Does Mercury Promote Lipid Peroxidation? Seppanen, K, et al. Biological Trace Element Research Vol. 101, 2004. pp. 117-132.
24. Mercury accumulation and accelerated progression of carotid atherosclerosis: a population-based prospective 4-year follow-up study in men in eastern Finland. Salonen, J, et al. Atherosclerosis 148 (2000) 265-273.
25. The impact of long-term past exposure to elemental mercury on antioxidative capacity and lipid peroxidation in mercury miners. Kobal, A, et alk. J. Trace elem. Biol. Vol. 17 (4) 261-274 (2004).
26. Inhibition of paraoxanase activity in human liver microsomes by exposure to EDTA, metals and mercurials. Gonzalvo, M, et al. Chemico-Biological Interactions 105 (1979) 169-179.
27. Inhibition of paraoxanase activity in human liver microsomes by exposure to EDTA, metals and mercurials. Gonzalvo, M, et al. Chemico-Biological Interactions 105 (1979) 169-179.
28. Antiperoxidative Mechanisms Offered by Selenium against Liver Injury Caused by Cadmium and Mercury in Rat. Rana, S, and Boora, P. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1992) 48: 120-124.
29. Influence of Free Radicals on Cardiovascular Risk due to Occupational Exposure to Mercury. Abdel-Hamid, H, et al. The Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association Vol. LXXVI; No. 1,2 2001 pp. 53-65.
30. The Role of Mercury and Cadmium Heavy Metals in Vascular Disease, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, and Myocardial Infarction. Houston, Mark 13th International Symposium of The Institute for Functional Medicine.
31. Altered nitric oxide metabolism and increased oxygen free radical activity in lead-induced hypertension: Effect of lazaroid therapy. Vaziri, N, et la. Kidney International Vol. 52 (1997), pp. 1042-1046.
32. Additive Statistical Effects of Cadmium and Lead on Heart-Related Disease in a North Carolina Autopsy Series. Voors, A, et la. Archives of Environmental Health. March/April 1982 (Vol. 37 No. 2). Pp. 98-102.
33. Mercury as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Virtanen, J, et al. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 18 (2007) 75-85.
34. Association of urinary cadmium and myocardial infarction. Everett, C. and Frithsen, I. Environmental Research 106 (2008) 284-286.
35. 1. Environmental Lead Exposure and Progression of Chronic Renal Diseases in Patients without Diabetes. Lin, J. et al. NEJM 2003;348:277-86.
36. Chelation Therapy for Patients with Elevated Body Lead Burden and Progressive Renal Insufficiency. Lin, J. et al. Ann Intern Med. 1999;130-13.
37. Long-term outcome of repeated lead chelation therapy in progressive non-diabetic chronic kidney diseases. Lin-Tan, D. et al. Nephrol Dial Transplant (2007) 22:2924-2931.
38. Environmental exposure to lead and progressive diabetic nephropathy in patients with type II diabetes. Lin, J. et al. Kidney International (2006) 69, 2049-2056.
39. Effect of Disodium EDTA Chelation Regimen on Cardiovascular Events in patients with Previous Myocardial Infarction. Lams G. et al. JAMA, March 27, 2013 – Vol. 309, No. 12, pp. 1241-1250.
Metals and Cardiomyopathy/CHF
1. Dietary and blood antioxidants in patients with chronic heart failure. Insights into the potential importance of selenium in heart failure. Lorgeril, M, et al. European Journal of Heart Failure 3 (2001) 661-669.
2. Marked Elevation of Myocardial Trace elements in Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Compared With Secondary Cardiac Dysfunction. Frustaci, A, et al. J Am Coll Cardiol1999;33:1578-83.
3. Role of Cadmium and Magnesium in Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy. Smetna, R, and Glogar, D. American Journal of Cardiology Vol. 58, Aug. 1, 1986, pp. 364-365.
4. EDTA Chelation Therapy: Efficacy in Arteriosclerotic Heart Disease. Casdorph, H. Journal of Advancement in Medicine Vol. 2, No. ½, Spring/Summer 1989 pp. 121-129.
5. New aspects of murine coxsackie B3 myocarditis – focus on heavy metals. Ilback, N, et al. European Heart Journal (1995) 16 (Supplement O), 20-24.
6. Effects of methyl mercury on cytokines, inflammation and virus clearance in a common infection (Coxsackie B3 myocarditis). Ilback, N, et al. Toxicology Letters 89 (1996) 19-28.
7. Trace Element Distribution in Heart Tissue Sections Studied by Nuclear Microscopy Is Changed in Coxsackie Virus B3 Myocarditis in Methyl Mercury-Exposed Mice. Ilback, N, et al. Biological Trace Element Research Vol. 78, 2000 pp. 131-147.
8. Studies on the Relationship of Selenium and Keshan Disease. Chen, X, et akl. Biological Trace Element Research 2, 91-107 (1980).
Metals and Immune Upregulation
1. Simple chemicals can induce maturation and apoptosis of dendritic cells. Manome, H, et al. Immunology 1999 98 481-490.
2. Effects of deviating the Th2-response in murine mercury-induced autoimmunity towards a Th1-response. Haggovist, B, et al,. Clin Exp Immunol 2003; 134:2002-209.
3. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide both renders resistant mice susceptible to mercury-induced autoimmunity and exacerbates such autoimmunity in susceptible mice. Valugerdi, A, et al. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 141: 238-247. 2005.
4. Responsiveness of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells to thimerosal and mercury derivatives. Migdal, C, et la. Toxicol Appl. Pharmacol. 2010 Jul;246(1-2):66-73.
5. Cytokine Regulation of a Rodent Model of Mercuric Chloride-Induced Autoimmunity. Bagenstose, L, et al. Environ Health Perspect 107(suppl 5):807-810 (1999).
6. Disappearance of Immune Deposits with EDTA Chelation Therapy in a Case of IgA Nephropathy. Lin, J, and Lim, P. Am J Nephrol;12:457-460.
7. Activation of the immune System and Systemic Immune-Complex Deposits in Brown Norway Rats with Dental Amalgam Restorations. Hyultman, P, et al. J Dent Res 77(6): 1415-1425, June, 1998.
8. Mercury Induces an Unopposed Inflammatory Response in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Vitro. Gardner, R, et al. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 117 No. 12, Dec. 2009 pp. 1932-1938.
9. Reactive oxygen intermediates as apparently widely used messengers in the activation of the NF-kB transcription factor and HIV-1. Schreck, R, et al. The EMBO Journal vol. 10 pp. 2247-2258, 1991.
10. Mercury Activates Vascular Endothelial Cell Phospholipase D through Thiols and Oxidative Stress. Hagele, T, et al. International Journal of Toxicology, 26:57-69, 2007.